Home > 1, Foreign Affairs > INDIA, PAKISTAN and KASHMIR


There are 4 issues nurturing the rivalry between these two nation that i will be analysing. First is disputed status of state of Jammu And Kashmir, second is Political rhetoric of distrust and blame game, third is arms race and fourth is Terrorism .

Jammu And Kashmir was a princely states at the time of partition of india, hence had the option to go with either India, Pakistan or remain independent.The ruler of the state at that timeMaharaja Hari Singh decided to buy some time before he can make decision and entered a stand by agreement with viceroy of india Lord Mountbatten.Before he can make any decision, tribesman backed by Pakistan  invaded J&K , the ruler disheartened by the attack, pleaded for help to Lord Mountbatten , who agreed on condition that ruler accede to india and entered an agreement of accession with india.Thus J&K became a state of india and hence indian defence forces defended against aggression of pakistan and saved state of J&K from being occupied by pakistan, though pakistan had already occupied a part of J&K before indian forces had arrived for defence of J&K, india claims that part to be illegaly occupied by pakistan and calls it POK- pak occupied Kashmir. Pakistan on the otherside claims that there was no agreement between ruler and india and hence india is illegaly occupying and calls indian state of J&K as IHK – Indian held Kashmir.

J&K is central issue of rivalry between two neighbours. Pakistan’s ambitions of claiming IHK, has led to three wars between india and pakistan, in all the three wars india won and defended the state of J&K from being seized by pakistan.Having failed in direct confrontations with india, pakistan continues to try indirect means like insurgency, separatism and terrorism.State of affairs between the two nations has harmed the people of J&K the most, and this has led to growth of separatist movement in J&K, with section of people demanding to make J&K an independent country.

Some possible solutions to solving the problem of J&K could be , autonomy to the whole state of J&K IHK and POK with special arrangements, acceptance of status quo by both the nations, holding of plebiscite as promised to decide the fate of J&K i.e people deciding whether it goes with india or pakistan and lastly independence of whole state of J&K IHK and POK.

Among all the above listed solutions i find autonomy to the whole state of J&K as the best solution , followed by acceptance of status quo as second most favoured solution and holding of plebiscite as the third most favoured solution.Independence of J&K as proposed by separatists is the worst solution since an independent kashmir will become a soft centre of attraction of enemies of India and hence a national security threat and centre of escalation of rivalry rather than bringing peace.

Autonomy to the state of J&K- If somehow leaders of both the countries agree to make whole state of J&K an autonomous region with democratic set up i.e people of J&K electing their own government which derieve it’s powers from a constitution based upon secular, democratic , pacifist fundamentals.The only thing this autonomous state must lack is sovereignty and hence exercise of diplomatic relations with other countries and defence forces of it’s own and be a de-militarised region keeping just a police force consisting of it’s own people. The problem with this solution is that political parties emanating from india and pakistan to contest elections can start pro india or pro pakistan rhetorics when in power respectively and hence hamper the chances of winning of each other.A sort of thing that all political parties do be it congress-bjp in india or PDP-PML in pakistan.Politicians are always greedy for power they cross every limit to gain power.Hence the constituion of autonomous state must come with a strong rider that any party having a pro pakistan or pro india or pro separatism stance be barred from fighting elections.Only pro people and pro development party be allowed to contest elections and hatred campaign and propoganda be barred.This solution can also work as a catalyst for normalisation of relation of india and pakistan and if it goes successful maybe both nations work towards political and economic reunion before 2047 to celebrate 100th year of their partition as years of reunion.

Acceptance of Status Quo:-To accept present boundaries of state of J&K as final and hence normalise relations abd build trust , de militarise the region, and give autonomy to respective regions they hold. But the problem with this solution is that neither of two is so far willing to accept status quo especially more so in pakistan’s case. Holding a plebiscite :- this would make whole state of J&K go to either of two countries and hence isn’t a good idea since there are sentiments attached and is a matter of national pride.Peopleof J&K rather than voting to go with a single country , must aim to go with a united india and pakistan. Political rhetoric and blame game is what sometimes limits the progress of any effort we make in confidence building.Politicians should act responsibly and stop this blame game.They should rather work towards development of the state and address the needs of the people who elect them.Moreover opposition political parties must be barred and penalized for making irresponsible statements and people should be made aware to criticise politicians and not vote such rhetoric politicians to power.

Arms Race- The sense of insecurity of pakistan because of large size of indian conventional forces has led to nuclearization of S.Asia.Both these countries until now mainly have nuclear arsenals, other conventional missiles and tanks that are specifically targetted at each other.This has led to extreme insecurity in whole of S.Asia, as any war between the two can possible be disastrous.But none on each side seems to realize this fact.For a peaceful S.Asia both india and pakistan must first solve issue of J&K peacefully and then move towards collective security alliance for whole of S.Asia.The armies and arsenals of two rather than being targeted at each other must work together for security against aggression emanating from outside.Pakistan must realize that a strong india in 21st century is vital for its security interests and is not a threat to it.Both the nations must come forward with peace treaties vowing not to use armed forces, conventional or nuclear arsenals against each other ,i.e vowing not to fight again ever , and sign treaties and agreements to shared and disciplined joint security alliance.India has to be the first to propose such a solution to allay fears in the minds of pakistan of intimidation and threat posed by india’s superiority in conventional and nuclear forces.A united S.Asian security force consisting of armies, navies and airforce of all SAARC members with nuclear sharing for defence of S.Asia .Both countries should work for global nuclear disarmament, and put pressure on U.S.A, Russia and China and others to give up nuclear weapons.Only a nuclear free world can be a place of lasting peace and progress and S.Asia should make every effort for it.

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